The beginning of the 1920's saw a rise in the black pride movement. Blacks were creating literature, music, and scientific advancements that benefited American society as a whole. In 1905, W.E.B Du Bois began the Niagara Movement, at the canadian side of the Niagara Falls they drafted a list of demand. They wanted blacks to have equal educational and financial opportunities, and an end to segregation and discrimination. Four year later, in 1909 they combined with a primarily white anti-lynching group to form the NAACP- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The novel, There is Confusion, by Jessi Redmond Fauset in 1924 voiced this struggle about blacks finding their own cultural identity in a white dominated New York.
Marcus Garvey and the UNIA
In 1914, Marcus Garvey formed the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in Jamaica. Two years later, in 1916, Garvey arrived in Harlem New York and brought his radical ideas with him. These ideas spread throughout poor urban black neighborhoods, but were opposed by the NAACP, who saw Garvey as a fraud. In 1927, Marcus Garvey was deported back to Jamaica, a few years after he was convicted of fraud. Though the UNIA never fully recovered from this blow in America they remained some what active, and other black nationalists groups would be founded.
Pictured to the left is Marcus Garvey chairing a session of the UNIA.